What is Cyber-physical system (CPS)?

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• CPS is an interdisciplinary field that
deals with the deployment of
computer-based systems that do
things in the physical world. It
integrates sensing, computation,
control and networking into physical
objects and infrastructure,
connecting them to the Internet and
to each other.

• Examples of cyber physical systems
are Smart Grid Networks, Smart
Transportation System, Enterprise
Cloud Infrastructure, Utility Service
Infrastructure for Smart Cities, etc.

• CPS and its associated technologies,
like Artificial Intelligence (Al),
Internet of Things (loT), Machine
Learning (ML), Deep Learning (DP),
Big Data Analytics, Robotics,
Quantum Computing, Quantum
Communication, Quantum encryption
(Quantum Key Distribution), Data
Science & Predictive analytics, Cyber Security for physical infrastructure and other infrastructure plays a
transformative role in almost every field of human endeavor in all sectors.

Advantages of CPS technologies

• Enhanced security capabilities: It can play role in expediting design and delivery of trustworthy,
adaptable and affordable systems, operations in cyberspace and autonomous systems to augment
security operations.

• Disaster Management: CPS technologies including next generation public safety communications,
sensor networks, and response robotics can dramatically increase the situational awareness of
emergency responders and enable optimized response through all phases of disaster events.

• Energy: They are essential for the creation of energy infrastructure, optimization and management of
resources and facilities and allowing consumers to control and manage their energy consumption
patterns like smart meters.

• Healthcare: CPS correct-by-construction design methodologies are needed to design cost-effective, easy-
to-certify, and safe products.

• Transportation: They can (potentially) eliminate accidents caused by human error, Congestion control,
traffic-based grid jams.

• Agriculture: They will play a key role in helping to increase efficiency throughout the value chain,
improving environmental footprint and creating opportunities for a skilled and semi-skilled workforce.

Challenges in CPS

• Privacy issues: CPS technologies that enhance privacy and enable the appropriate use of sensitive and
personal information while protecting personal privacy are needed.

• Computational Abstractions: Physical properties such as laws of physics and chemistry, safety,
resources, real time power constrained etc. must be captured by programming abstractions.

• Data related challenges: It allows flexible control and resource use; provides conduits for information
leakage; prone to mis-configurations and deliberate attacks by outsiders and insiders.

• Infrastructural bottlenecks: This system requires a Sensor and mobile networks hence essential
requirement to increase system autonomy in practice requires self-organization of mobile and Adhoc
CPS networks.

• Human Interaction: Human interaction with CPSs often encounter a critical challenge when interpreting
the human-machine behavior and designing appropriate models that consider the current situational
measurements and environmental changes which are crucial in the decision-making processes,
particularly in systems such as air traffic systems and military systems.

• Technical barrier: One of the biggest problems that such integrations face is the lack of consistent
language and terminology that need to exist to describe cyber-physical interactions.
• Consistency: There are challenges in maintaining the same required level of accuracy, reliability, and
performance of all system parts.

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