🔆Glacial lake outburst flood(GLOF)
✅Glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) is a phrase used to describe a sudden release of a significant amount of water retained in a glacial lake, irrespective of the cause.
✅GLOFs are characterized by extreme peak discharges, often several times in excess of the maximum discharges of hydrometeorological induced floods, with an exceptional erosion/transport potential; therefore, they can turn into flow-type movements, e.g. GLOF-induced debris flows.
✅The following direct causes of glacial lake outburst floods were documented:
✅Rapid slope movement into the lake
✅Cascading processes (flood from a lake situated upstream)
✅Melting of ice incorporated in dam/forming the dam (including volcanic activity-triggered jökulhlaups)
✅Blocking of subsurface outflow tunnels (applies only to lakes without surface outflow or lakes with a combination of surface and subsurface outflow)
✅Long-term dam degradation.